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Российский университет дружбы народов
Инженерный факультет
Кафедра строительных конструкций и сооружений
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Тетрадь
для лабораторных работ
по курсу «Архитектурное материаловедение»
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Студента:
Группы:
Проверил преподаватель:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Москва - 2010
 
Составители: доцент Близгарева Т. И., старший преподаватель Дхар П., Белова О. Г.
 
Тетрадь для лабораторных работ по курсу «Архитектурное материаловедение» - М.: Издательство РУДН, 2010. – 58 с.
 
Тетрадь предназначена для студентов II курса инженерного факультета направления подготовки «Архитектура»
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Издательство «Оргсервис», 2010
Близгарева Т. И., Дхар П., Белова О. Г. 2010
 
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
 
ТЕМА 1. ОБЩИЕ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ СВОЙСТВА СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ
 
Лабораторная работа №1. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ФИЗИЧЕСКИХ СВОЙСТВ СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫХ
МАТЕРИАЛОВ .............................................................................................................................. 4
 
ТЕМА 2. ПРИРОДНЫЕ КАМЕННЫЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ
 
Лабораторная работа №2. МИНЕРАЛЫ И ГОРНЫЕ ПОРОДЫ............................................... 10
 
ТЕМА 3. НЕОРГАНИЧЕСКИЕ ВЯЖУЩИЕ ВЕЩЕСТВА
 
ВОЗДУШНЫЕ ВЯЖУЩИЕ ВЕЩЕСТВА
Лабораторная работа №3. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ СВОЙСТВ СТРОИТЕЛЬНОГО ГИПСА................ 15
 
ГИДРАВЛИЧЕСКИЕ ВЯЖУЩИЕ ВЕЩЕСТВА
Лабораторная работа №4. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ СВОЙСТВ ПОРТЛАНДЦЕМЕНТА....................... 19
 
Лабораторная работа №5 ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ МАРКИ ПОРТЛАНДЦЕМЕНТА ............................. 26
 
ТЕМА 4. СВОЙСТВА ЗАПОЛНИТЕЛЕЙ ДЛЯ ТЯЖЕЛОГО БЕТОНА
 
Лабораторная работа №6. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ГРАНУЛОМЕТРИЧЕСКОГО СОСТАВА ЗАПОЛНИТЕЛЕЙ ДЛЯ БЕТОНА. ....................................................................................................................................................... 31
 
ТЕМА 5. ПРОЕКТИРОВАНИЕ СОСТАВА ТЯЖЕЛОГО БЕТОНА
 
Лабораторная работа №7. РАСЧЕТ СОСТАВА БЕТОННОЙ СМЕСИ МЕТОДОМ АБСОЛЮТНЫХ ОБЪЕМОВ 35
 
Лабораторная работа №8. ИЗУЧЕНИЕ СВОЙСТВ БЕТОННОЙ СМЕСИ.................................... 37
 
Лабораторная работа №9. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ МАРКИ И КЛАССА БЕТОНА................................. 39
 
Лабораторная работа №10. НАЗНАЧЕНИЕ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕННОГО СОСТАВА БЕТОННОЙ СМЕСИ 41
 
ТЕМА 6. ДРЕВЕСНЫЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ
 
Лабораторная работа №11. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ФИЗИКО-МЕХАНИЧЕСКИХ
СВОЙСТВ ДРЕВЕСИНЫ. ............................................................................................................... 42
 
ТЕМА 7. КЕРАМИЧЕСКИЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ И ИЗДЕЛИЯ
 
Лабораторная работа №12. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ СВОЙСТВ КЕРАМИЧЕСКОГО КИРПИЧА............ 49
 
СПИСОК ИСПОЛЬЗОВАННОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ............................................................................. 58
 
ТЕМА 1. ОБЩИЕ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ СВОЙСТВА СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ
 
Лабораторная работа №1.  ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ФИЗИЧЕСКИХ СВОЙСТВ СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫХ
МАТЕРИАЛОВ
1. Определение средней плотности материала
Что называют средней плотностью?
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Какие характеристики образца материала нужно знать, чтобы определить его среднюю плотность и по какой формуле ее вычисляют?
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Единицы измерения средней плотности:                                                                                    
 
1.1. Определение средней плотности материала в образцах правильной формы
Схема измерения образцов:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Приборы и инструменты:                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Последовательность проведения испытания:
1. Взвешивание образца с точностью:                                                                                         
2. Измерение и определение объема образца с точностью:                                                    
3. Вычисление средней плотности с точностью:                                                                         


 
Результаты определения средней плотности материалов в образцах правильной формы

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Материал
Сталь
Гранит
Бетон
Древесина
Поропласт
размеры
Высота
см
 
 
 
 
 
Ширина (диаметр)
см
 
 
 
 
 
длина
см
 
 
 
 
 
Масса образца
г
 
 
 
 
 
Объем образца
см3
 
 
 
 
 
Средняя плотность материала
г\см3
 
 
 
 
 
кг\м3
 
 
 
 
 
т\м3
 
 
 
 
 

Заключение по определению средней плотности материалов:                                                
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
1.2. Определение средней плотности материала в образцах неправильной формы
Схема определения объема образца:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Приборы, инструменты и материалы:                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Последовательность определения средней плотности материала в образцах неправильной формы:   
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Результаты определения средней   плотности материала в образцах неправильной формы

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Материал
Гранит
Керамический кирпич
Масса образца
г
 
 
Масса образца, покрытого парафином
г
 
 
Масса парафина
г
 
 
Объем парафина, нанесенного на образец
г\см3
 
 
Первоначальный объем воды в цилиндре
см3
 
 
Объем воды в цилиндре с образцом
см3
 
 
Объем вытесненной воды
см3
 
 
Объем образца
см3
 
 
Средняя плотность материала
г\см3
 
 
кг\м3
 
 
т\м3
 
 

 
Заключение:                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
1.3. Определение средней насыпной плотности сыпучих (рыхлых) материалов
Примеры рыхлых материалов:                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Приборы и инструменты:                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Последовательность определения средней насыпной плотности материалов:                     
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Схема опыта:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Результаты определения средней насыпной плотности материалов

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Материал
Цемент
Песок
Щебень
Объем мерного сосуда
см3
 
 
 
 
Масса мерного сосуда
г
 
 
 
Масса мерного сосуда с материалом
г
 
 
 
Масса материала в мерном сосуде
г
 
 
 
Средняя насыпная плотность материала
кг\л
 
 
 
кг\м3
 
 
 
т\м3
 
 
 

 
Заключение:                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
2. Определение истинной плотности материала
 
Что называют истинной плотностью материала?
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
По какой формуле вычисляют величину истинной плотности и в каких единицах ее измеряют?           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Приборы, инструменты и материалы:                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                           
 Последовательность определения истинной плотности:                                                          
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
С какой целью при определении истинной плотности измельчают материал?
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Схема определения объема материала:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Расчет пористости материала
Что называют пористостью?                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Формулы (общей, открытой и закрытой) пористости:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Единицы измерения пористости:                                                                                                  
 
Результаты вычисления пористости материала

Наименование материала
Средняя плотность,
кг/м3
Истинная плотность,
кг/м3
Общая пористость,
%
Гранит
 
 
 
Бетон тяжелый
 
 
 
Сталь
 
 
 
Кирпич керамический
 
 
 
Древесина
 
 
 
Поропласт
 
 
 

Заключение:                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Какое влияние оказывает открытая и закрытая пористость на водостойкость, прочность, звуко- и теплопроводность материала? Приведите примеры.
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 


 
ТЕМА 2. ПРИРОДНЫЕ КАМЕННЫЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ
 
Лабораторная работа №2. МИНЕРАЛЫ И ГОРНЫЕ ПОРОДЫ
 
Генетическая классификация горных пород
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Задание: заполните таблицы «Минералы» и «Горные породы» (по два примера в каждой группе), пользуясь учебником и коллекцией горных пород.
 
МИНЕРАЛЫ

Минерал
Химический состав
Цвет
Плот-ность, г/см3
Твер-дость
Индивидуальные признаки
Кварц
 
 
 
 
 
Полевые шпаты
Ортоклаз
 
 
 
 
 
Плагио-
клаз
 
 
 
 
 
Темноцветные минералы
Роговая обманка
 
 
 
 
 
Авгит
 
 
 
 
 
Оливин
 
 
 
 
 
Слюды
Мусковит
 
 
 
 
 
Биотит
 
 
 
 
 
Глауконит
 
 
 
 
 
Кальцит
 
 
 
 
 
Доломит
 
 
 
 
 
Гипс
 
 
 
 
 
Ангидрит
 
 
 
 
 
Каолинит
 
 
 
 
 
Пирит
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ГОРНЫЕ ПОРОДЫ
 

Горные породы
Минералоги-
ческий
состав
Внешние признаки
Основные свойства (средняя плотность, прочность, пористость, водопоглощение и другие)
Область применения
Магматические глубинные
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Магматические излившиеся плотные
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Магматические излившиеся пористые
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Осадочные механические
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Осадочные химические
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Осадочные ограногенные
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Метаморфические
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

ТЕМА 3. НЕОРГАНИЧЕСКИЕ ВЯЖУЩИЕ ВЕЩЕСТВА
Лабораторная работа №3.  
ВОЗДУШНЫЕ ВЯЖУЩИЕ ВЕЩЕСТВА. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ СВОЙСТВ СТРОИТЕЛЬНОГО ГИПСА
 
Гипс строительный                                                                                                                                               
Тонкость помола гипса:                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
На какие группы делят строительный гипс в зависимости от тонкости помола?
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
3.1. Определение стандартной консистенции (нормальной густоты) строительного гипса
Стандартной консистенцией (нормальной густотой) гипсового теста называется                 
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Показателем стандартной консистенции (нормальной густоты) гипсового теста является: 
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Стандартная консистенция (нормальная густота) гипсового теста обычно достигается
 при _____________ % воды.
Приборы                                                                                                                                           
Методика проведения испытания:                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Схема прибора и схема определения стандартной консистенции
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Результаты определения нормальной густоты гипсового теста

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Номер опыта
1
2
3
4
5
Навеска гипса
г
 
 
 
 
 
Количество воды
%
 
 
 
 
 
г
 
 
 
 
 
Диаметр расплыва теста
мм
 
 
 
 
 

Заключение по проведенному испытанию                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
3.2. Определение сроков схватывания гипсового теста
Схватыванием называется                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                           
По скорости схватывания гипсовые вяжущие делятся на следующие группы:                       
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Приборы:                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                           
Методика:                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Схема прибора:
 
 


 
Результаты определения сроков схватывания строительного гипса

Момент затворения _________мин__________сек
Время отпускания иглы
Показания прибора Вика
Время отпускания иглы
Показания прибора Вика
Время отпускания иглы
Показания прибора Вика
мин
сек
мин
сек
мин
сек
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Начало схватывания ________________________ Конец схватывания                                   
Заключение по проведенному испытанию                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
3.3 Определение предела прочности при изгибе и сжатии
Приготовлено образцов:                                                                                                                 
Размер образцов :                                                                                                                           
Состав теста:                                                                                                                                     
Время твердения образцов (с момента изготовления до момента испытания):                   
Приборы:                                                                                                                                          
Методика проведения испытания:                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                    
 
 
Схемы испытания ми расчетные формулы:

На изгиб
 
На сжатие

Таблица результатов испытаний на изгиб

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Номер образцов
1
2
3
Размеры
Ширина
см
 
 
 
Высота
см
 
 
 
Расстояние между опорами
см
 
 
 
Разрушающее давление
кгс
 
 
 
Предел прочности при изгибе
кгс/см2
 
 
 
Средний предел прочности при изгибе
кгс/см2,
МПа
 

 
Таблица результатов испытания на сжатие

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Номер образцов
1
2
3
4
5
6
Площадь поперечного сечения
см2
 
 
 
 
 
 
Разрушающее давление
кгс
 
 
 
 
 
 
Предел прочности при сжатии
кгс/см2
 
 
 
 
 
 
Средний предел прочности при сжатии
кгс/см2,
МПа
 

 
Заключение по проведенному испытанию                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                           
Общее заключение о марке гипса                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Заключение о качестве строительного гипса:                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 


 
Лабораторная работа №4.
ГИДРАВЛИЧЕСКИЕ ВЯЖУЩИЕ ВЕЩЕСТВА
ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ СВОЙСТВ ПОРТЛАНДЦЕМЕНТА
 
Портландцементом называется                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Химический состав портландцемента:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Минералогический состав портландцемента:                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Для оценки портландцемента определяют следующие его свойства:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
4.1. Определение тонкости помола портландцемента
 
Приборы и инструменты:                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Тонкость помола цемента характеризуется:                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Навеска цемента:                                                                                                                            
Методика проведения испытания:                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Количество цемента, прошедшего через сито, определяют по формуле:
 
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Результаты определения тонкости помола цемента

№ опытов
Навеска цемента, г
Остаток на сите № 008, г
Средний остаток на сите №008, г
Прошло через сито №008, %
1
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
 
 

 
Заключение по проведенному испытанию:                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
4.2. Определение нормальной густоты цементного теста
Что называют густотой цементного теста?
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Приборы:                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Последовательность определения нормальной густоты цементного теста:                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Схема прибора Вика:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Общий вес подвижной части прибора:                                                                                        
 
 
Результаты опытов по определению количества воды
 для нормальной густоты цементного теста
 

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Номер опыта
1
2
3
4
5
Навеска цемента
г
 
 
 
 
 
Содержание воды
%
 
 
 
 
 
г
 
 
 
 
 
Показание прибора Вика
мм
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
Заключение по проведенному испытанию:                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
От чего зависит количество воды для нормальной густоты цементного теста?
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.3. Определение сроков схватывания портландцемента
Приборы и инструменты:                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Схема прибора Вика:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Характеристика иглы прибора Вика:                                                                                                      
Схема   формы-кольца:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Методика проведения испытания:                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Результаты определения сроков схватывания цементного теста

№ опыта
Навеска цемента, г
Количе-ство воды,
 мл
Время от начала затворения водой, мин
Отсчет по шкале прибора,
мм
Начало схватывания цемента,
мин
Конец схватывания цемента, мин
1
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
 
 
 
 

Начало схватывания цементного теста:                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Конец схватывания цементного теста:                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
4.4. Определение равномерности изменения объема цементного теста при твердении
Что является признаком равномерности изменения объема при твердении?                     
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                    
Что является признаком неравномерности изменения объема при твердении?                 
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                           
Что является причиной (и сколько основных причин) появления трещин, искривления или полного разрушения цементного образца при твердении?
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
 
Приборы и инструменты:                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Последовательность проведения испытания:                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Вид образцов, не выдержавших испытания на равномерность изменения объема при твердении:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Вид образцов, выдержавших испытания на равномерность изменения объема при твердении:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Что называют усадкой цементного камня?
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Какие условия наиболее благоприятны для твердения цемента и почему?
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Основные способы ускорения твердения цемента:                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                    
 
 
Реакции гидратации клинкерных материалов:
 
 
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Лабораторная работа №5.
 ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ МАРКИ ПОРТЛАНДЦЕМЕНТА
 
Что называют маркой цемента?                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Марки портландцемента, выпускаемого в РФ:                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
5.1. Определение консистенции цементно-песчаной растворной смеси
 
Приборы и инструменты:                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Материалы:                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Характеристика стандартного песка:                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Состав растворной смеси по массе:                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Последовательность проведения испытания:
 
1. Перемешивание растворной смеси по этапам:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
2. подготовка формы-конуса:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
3. Уплотнение растворной смеси в форме-конусе:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
4. Определение консистенции растворной смеси:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
5. работа встряхивающего столика:
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Схема прибора:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Раствор стандартной консистенции имеет расплыв конуса                                                      
Результаты определения консистенции растворной смеси

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Номер опыта
1
2
3
4
Навеска цемента
г
 
 
 
 
Навеска песка
г
 
 
 
 
Количество воды
г
 
 
 
 
Водоцементное отношение
В/Ц
 
В/Ц
 
 
 
 
 
 
Расплыв конуса
мм
 
 
 
 

 
Заключение по проведенному испытанию:
Цементно-песчаный раствор имеет стандартную консистенцию, характеризуемую расплывом конуса ________   мм при В/Ц = ______________
 
5.2. Изготовление образцов для определения марки цемента
 
Приборы и инструменты:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Изготовление образцов-балочек размером:                                                                                
Состав смеси:                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Уплотнение смеси в формах:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Условие хранения образцов до испытания:                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
5.3. Испытание образцов на изгиб и сжатие
 
Оборудование:                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Схемы испытания:
На изгиб
на сжатие
Формулы для определения предела прочности:

На изгиб
 
 
 
на сжатие

 
 
 
 
Результаты испытания образцов-балочек на изгиб

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Номер балочки
1
2
3
Размеры
Ширина
см
 
 
 
Высота
см
 
 
 
Длина
см
 
 
 
Возраст образцов
сутки
 
 
 
Разрушающее давление
кгс
 
 
 
Предел прочности при изгибе через________суток
кгс/см2
 
 
 
Предел прочности при изгибе через 28 суток
кгс/см2
 
 
 
Средний предел прочности при изгибе через 28 суток из двух наибольших
кгс/см2
МПа
 
 
 

 
Результаты испытания образцов - балочек на сжатие

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Номер образца
1
2
3
4
5
6
Возраст образцов
сутки
 
 
 
 
 
 
Площадь поперечного сечения
см2
 
 
 
 
 
 
Разрушающее давление
кгс
 
 
 
 
 
 
Предел прочности при сжатии через________суток
кгс/см2
 
 
 
 
 
 
Предел прочности при сжатии через 28 суток
кгс/см2
 
 
 
 
 
 
Средний предел прочности при сжатии через 28 суток из четырех наибольших
кгс/см2
 
МПа
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
Стандартные характеристики для определения марки портландцемента

Марки портландцемента
«300»
«400»
«500»
«550»
«600»
Предел прочности при сжатии через 28 суток, кгс/см2, не менее
 
 
 
 
 
Предел прочности при изгибе через 28 суток, кгс/см2, не менее
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
Заключение:                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
 
Какие факторы влияют на прочность цементного камня?                                                         
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 


 
ТЕМА 4. СВОЙСТВА ЗАПОЛНИТЕЛЕЙ ДЛЯ ТЯЖЕЛОГО БЕТОНА
Лабораторная работа №6.
ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ГРАНУЛОМЕТРИЧЕСКОГО СОСТАВА ЗАПОЛНИТЕЛЕЙ ДЛЯ БЕТОНА
 
1. Какие заполнители для бетона вы знаете?
                                                                                                                                                           
2. Какой материал относится к песку?                                                                                           
3. Какой материал относится к щебню?                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                           
4. Какой материал относится к гравию?
                                                                                                                                                           
5. Как определить частные остатки в %?                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                           
6. Как определить полные остатки в %?                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
6.1. Определение гранулометрического состава песка
 
Приборы:                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Методика:                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
Навеска песка:                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Таблица результатов определения гранулометрического состава песка
 

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Размер отверстий сит, мм
Прошло через сито
 0,16 мм
2,5
1,25
0,63
0,315
0,16
Частные остатки
г
 
 
 
 
 
 
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
Полные остатки
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
Полные остатки, допустимые по ГОСТ
%
0-20
15-45
35-70
75-90
90-100
 

 
 
 

Полные остатки на контрольных ситах,
 % по массе
 
Кривые гранулометрического состава песка
 
0
 
 
 
 
 
 
20
 
 
 
 
 
 
40
 
 
 
 
 
 
60
 
 
 
 
 
 
80
 
 
 
 
 
 
100
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

0
0,16
0,315
0,63
1,25
2,5
5,0
Диаметр отверстий контрольных сит, мм

 
 
 
Модуль крупности песка:
 
 
 
Заключение о гранулометрическом составе песка:                                                                    
а) по гранулометрическому составу:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
б) по модулю крупности:                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Как можно улучшить гранулометрический состав песка?                                                          
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Какие характеристики песка, кроме гранулометрического состава, определяют при оценке его качества?                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
 
6.2. Определение гранулометрического состава щебня
 
Приборы:                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Методика:                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Наибольшая крупность щебня:                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Наименьшая крупность щебня:                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Навеска щебня:                                                                                                                                
 
Таблица результатов определения гранулометрического состава щебня

Показатели
Единицы измерения
Размер отверстий сит, мм
Прошло через сито
 5 мм
80
40
20
10
5
Частные остатки
г
 
 
 
 
 
 
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
Полные остатки
%
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
Наибольшая крупность щебня (D): _____________________мм
 
Наименьшая крупность щебня (d):_____________________ мм
 
 
 
d + D
   2           ____________________мм
 
1,25 D    ____________________мм
 
 
Сравнение гранулометрического состава испытуемого щебня со стандартными требованиями
 

Наименование
Диаметр отверстий сит, мм
d,
мм
d + D
2         
 мм
D,
мм
1,25 D
мм
Полные остатки, %
 
 
 
 
Полные остатки,
 допустимые по ГОСТ
95-100
40-70
0-5
0

 
 

Полные остатки на ситах,  %
 
Кривые гранулометрического состава щебня
 
0
 
 
 
20
 
 
 
40
 
 
 
60
 
 
 
80
 
 
 
100
 
 
 

 

d
 0.5 (d + D)
     D
1,25 D
 
Диаметр отверстий сит, мм

 
 
 
 
Заключение о гранулометрическом составе щебня:                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Как можно улучшить гранулометрический состав щебня?                                                        
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
ТЕМА 5. ПРОЕКТИРОВАНИЕ СОСТАВА ТЯЖЕЛОГО БЕТОНА
 
Лабораторная работа №7.
 
РАСЧЕТ СОСТАВА БЕТОННОЙ СМЕСИ МЕТОДОМ АБСОЛЮТНЫХ ОБЪЕМОВ ТЕМА 5. ПРОЕКТИРОВАНИЕ СОСТАВА ТЯЖЕЛОГО БЕТОНА
 
 Основные положения расчета состава бетона методом абсолютных объемов:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Литература:                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Задание:                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Назначение бетона:                                                                                                                        
Требуемая прочность бетона:                                                                                                      
Требуемая подвижность бетонной смеси:                                                                                 
 
 
Характеристика материалов:
Цемент:
Вид цемента:                                                                                                                               
Марка (активность) цемента:_____________________________кгс/см2
Средняя насыпная плотность ρнц  = _____________________кг/м3
Истинная плотность ρц   = __________________ кг/м3
 
 
Мелкий заполнитель (песок):
Крупность песка _________________мм
Средняя насыпная плотность ρнп= _____________________кг/м3
Истинная плотность ρп   = __________________ кг/м3
Влажность Wп = _________________%
Крупный заполнитель:
Вид заполнителя: ________________________
Наибольшая крупность ___________мм
Средняя насыпная плотность ρнщ (г)= _____________________кг/м3
Истинная плотность ρщ (г)   = __________________ кг/м3
Пустотность __________________% (в долях единицы = ______________)
Влажность Wщ = _________________%
 
Вода:______                                                                                                                                     
 
 
Расчет состава тяжелого бетона:
 
1. Определение водоцементного отношения В/Ц:                                                                     
 
                                                                                                                                                           
 
2. Определение расхода воды:                                                                                                      
Поправочные данные:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                    
 
3. расход цемента:
                                                                                                                                                           
 
4. расход щебня в сухом состоянии:
                                                                                                                                                           
 
                                                                                                                                                           
Значение коэффициента раздвижки зерен крупного заполнителя:                                         
5. Расход песка в сухом состоянии:
 
                                                                                                                                                           
 
                                                                                                                                                           
 
6. Ориентировочный лабораторный состав бетонной смеси:
Цемент =
Вода =
Щебень =
Песок =
 
7. Расход материалов на замес бетонной смеси объемом 8 литров:
Цемент =
Вода =
Щебень =
Песок =
Лабораторная работа №8.
 
ИЗУЧЕНИЕ СВОЙСТВ БЕТОННОЙ СМЕСИ
 
8.1. Приготовление бетонной смеси и определение ее подвижности
Приборы и инструменты:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Уплотнение смеси в конусе:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Схема определения подвижности:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Осадка конуса ____________________см
Вывод о необходимости корректировки бетонной смеси:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Корректировка бетонной смеси по подвижности:

Корректировка 1
Корректировка 2
Добавлено
%
кг
Добавлено
%
кг
Цемент
 
 
Цемент
 
 
Вода
 
 
Вода
 
 
Песок
 
 
Песок
 
 
Щебень
 
 
Щебень
 
 
Осадка конуса _____________ см
Осадка конуса ________________ см

Заключение:
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Назначение фактического состава бетонной смеси:
 
Расчет расхода материалов на 1 м3 с учетом корректировки состава смеси:
 
Цемент                                                                                                                                            кг
Вода                                                                                                                                                кг
Щебень                                                                                                                                           кг
Песок                                                                                                                                               кг
 
Фактический расход материалов в кг на 1 м3 бетонной смеси:
Цемент ________________________кг
Вода      ________________________кг (л)
Щебень ________________________кг
Песок    ________________________кг
 
Средняя плотность бетонной смеси _____________________кг/м3
 
 
8.2. Изготовление образцов для определения марки и класса бетона
 
Изготовлено образцов для определения прочности бетона:                                                     
Размер образцов:                                                                                                                            
Уплотнение образцов:                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                           
 
Условия хранения образцов до испытания:                                                                                
                                                                                    &