2019-02-11 12:28:37
Дорогие аспиранты, вы будете
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Степанова В.В.

2019-01-08 12:48:46
Уважаемые аспиранты, пройти
аттестацию вы можете 22 и 25 января
(ауд.450) 2019 г. с 10.00 до 12.00.
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Making Presentaions (Report)


2 Well. Today’s topic of our talk is Making Presentations. I’ve looked through lots of materials available in the Internet and would like to share with you the most essential things about effective presentations. Being a teacher I know that the personality means a lot especially in our profession so I have chosen this quotation as a key phrase to whatever is being done in class.
“Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm” R.W.Emerson
3 In this presentation we will look at the following:
1 structure of a presentation
2 manner of presenting
3 using the visual aids
4 language we use
5 tips for making presentation
4 Depending on if you know the audience and the audience know you // there is no need to introduce yourself, though some kind of greeting is needed. It can be just Hello everybody or Nice to see you at this session (if you met earlier) or any other appropriate greeting you can think of.
5 The next step is introducing the topic which you can do as follows:
I’m going to tell you about/to give you a talk on …
This morning, I’d like to outline the …
Now, I would like to address myself to the most important aspect of this problem.
In the lecture I’ll focus on …
6 Giving a plan of your talk is the next stage of your presentation. The phrases you can use here are:
I’ve divided my presentation into three parts. Firstly, I’ll give you the background/definition to … Secondly, I’ll discuss the … Finally, I’ll talk you through the … or
My talk is in three parts. I’ll start with the background to the campaign, move on to the media we plan to use and finish with the storyboard for the commercial. or
My presentation will be given in four parts. The first part deals with ... The second part relates to... The third part concerns ... And the last part discusses… or
I’ll start by describing the current position in Europe. Then I’ll move on to some of the achievements we’ve made in Asia. After than I’ll consider the opportunities we see for further expansion in Africa. Lastly, I’ll quickly recap before concluding with some recommendations.
7 Depending upon your choice you can invite queries either during your presentation or hold them to the end, but of course you should think about the possible questions long before the presentation in order to impress the audience with deep knowledge of the subject and confidence you radiate. The useful language to be used is:
If there’s anything you’re not clear about, go ahead and ask any questions you want.
If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to interrupt me.
I will be glad to answer your queries after the talk.
8 Well, it’s common knowledge that a good start guarantees a happy end in many things, in other words first impressions count. To get your audience’s attention at the very start of the presentation you can use different techniques. These can involve: telling a personal story, offering an amazing fact, using a quotation, asking a question or stating a problem.
9 Here are some opening phrases you can use: 
To begin with, I would like to talk about a principle …
I think it would be best to start out by looking at some pictures/facts/figures.
The first thing I would like to talk about is the definition of the terms which I’ll use in my presentation.
10 Your speech should be well thought over and structured all through the presentation. In this case the audience will easily follow the flow and logic of your talk. You can signal shifting to the next point using the phrases like:
Well, let's move on to the next point.
We will now come to the second issue.
Turning to the next question, I'll talk about ...
 Now let’s turn our attention to the third topic.
So much for the methodology of our experiment. I would now like to shift to the discussion of the results.
Now, let's move away from the first part and switch over to the next part of my presentation.
That's all for the introduction and now we can go on to the literature review.

11 Next, I would like to turn to a more difficult problem.
The next point I'd like to talk about is the feasibility of this project.
That brings me to my second point.
Well, I've told you about... , now we’ll move on to …
That's all I have to say about... Let me turn now to …
We've studied ... let’s look now at …
So much for... , I’d like now to discuss
12 The final part of your presentation should also be signaled. The following expressions can help you to do this:
In conclusion,...
Right, let's sum up, shall we?
I'd like now to recap...
Let's summarize briefly what we've looked at...
Finally, let me remind you of some of the issues we've covered...
If I can just sum up the main points...
13 Conclusion involves:
·       Briefly summarising your main points
·       Answering questions
·       Thanking the audience for listening
·       Winding up
14 The end should be on a strong or positive note. Note tailing away to “well that’s all I’ve got to say so thank you very much for listening, ladies and gentlemen” spoils the impression you’ve been building up so hard.
Try something along these lines:
Hang-gliding is brilliant, so try it – you’ll believe a man can fly!
The danger is increasing – if we don’t all act soon it could be too late!
15 This brings me to the next point: speaking manner
Making a presentation is different than normal conversation. The general rule is that we should speak twice as loud and half the speed when we are making presentations compared to when we speak in normal conversation. When we speak too quickly and too quietly, the audience has a hard time following what we are saying.
Another aspect of our speaking manner is varying our tone. There is nothing less interesting than a monotone voice. Variations in tone place emphasis on different parts of what we are saying and create interest in our message. The worst situation is generally caused by those who read their presentation.
When people read their presentation, they are not maintaining eye contact. Eye contact personalizes your presentation. Your eye contact should flow across your audience and should not stay on one particular person for a prolonged period of time.
We should try to use specific language rather than slang and general terms. If there is a word that you have difficulty pronouncing, practice using it and if you are still uncomfortable, chose a different word. Try to minimize filler words that we often repeat when we are nervous, such as umm, like and you know.
Finally, try to be as natural as possible and as enthusiastic as your subject allows.
16 Body language and posture is another topic to be discussed
What you do not say is at least as important as what you do say. Your body is speaking to your audience even before you open your mouth. Your clothes, your walk, your glasses, your haircut, your expression - it is from these that your audience forms its first impression as you enter the room. €Generally speaking, it is better to stand rather than sit when making a presentation.
Be aware of and avoid any repetitive and irritating gestures.
Facial expression. The movements of your eyes, mouth, and facial muscles can build a connection with your audience. Alternatively, they can undermine your every word. Eye focus is the most important element in this process.
17 You will be surprised to know that the audiences receive your message in a very specific way. They first pay attention to its looks, then to how it sounds and only 10% of the attention is given to what you say. To give an effective presentation you should learn very simple rules. Please study the recommendations given to the right of the pie-chart: make eye contact, use body language, move around, don’t read, get the audience involved. I would also add a couple of tips not mentioned here: Plan your timing and Make your points clear. The final recommendation I would suggest is use your visual-aids and that’s the point I’d like to look at now.
18 We’ve just learnt that only 10 to20% of information is learned aurally (that is what the audience hear). The significance of this is obvious: visual aids are an extremely effective means of communication. It means that non-native English speakers like we are need not worry so much about spoken English – they (we) can rely more heavily on visual aids. Here are some tips:
  • Ensure that the slides look good. This does not necessarily mean that they look flashy - although suitable pictures or illustrations are very effective - but it does mean using a consistent format and typeface and readable colours plus giving each slide the logo of the organisation you are representing and a chronological number.
  • The first slide should announce the title of your presentation, the event and date, and your name and position. You should try to make the title catchy, so that you immediately have the interest of your audience. A challenging question works well - for instance, a presentation on the global economic crisis might ask: "Is this the end of capitalism as we've known it?"
  • The second slide should seize the attention of your audience for your presentation. It could be the central proposition of your presentation or a conventional wisdom that you wish to challenge or a relevant or witty quote from a leader in your field. If it is amusing or controversial or both, so much the better.
  • The third slide should set out the structure of your presentation. The default structure should consist of three themes that you intend to examine. For a very short presentation, there might only be time for two; if you want to look at more than five areas, write a book instead.
  • Each theme should be the subject of a small number of slides. Again, a good working assumption is that three slides for each theme is about right. Less than two and it isn't substantial enough to be a separate theme; more than five and it should probably be broken up into two themes.
  • Each slide should have a clear heading. A question is often a good way of winning attention - but, in that case, make sure you answer the question in the body of the slide.
  • Each bullet point should consist of an intelligible phrase, rather than merely a word or two that is meaningless on its own or conversely a complete sentence that is better delivered orally. Consider this test: your slides should make sense and be useful to someone who was not present at your presentation.
  • Make appropriate use of pictures. It's a good idea to break up text with illustrations and it is true that a picture is worth a thousand words.
  • The last slide should set out all appropriate contact details: certainly e-mail address and possibly snail mail address, the web site of your organisation, and any personal website or weblog if you have one.
·         Use humour/anecdotes/funny pictures to bring the statistics, facts, and figures that you need to deliver to drive them home.
23 Going from Good to Great
The next time you deliver a presentation, ask a trusted collegue in the audience to give you feedback afterward. This will help you to improve your presentation skills.
24 The expressions to help you refer to or explain the contents on the slides are:
This slide demonstrates ...
On this slide, you can see...
This table on this slide presents...
This diagram on this slide depicts...
This figure is taken from.., by Dr. Li.
This diagram is after that of Prof. Hoffman with some modification
25 For those curious in life I would like to make a reference to the so called girl effect in presentation. You can easily track it down in the Internet and I am sure you will be as greatly impressed with the technique as I was.
26 I do hope you find these tips useful and will use them while preparing your presentations. Thanks for listening! Any queries?

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