2018-01-08 14:46:10
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2017-12-06 18:28:56
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2017-09-28 17:22:23
Занятия в аспирантуре (1 год)
англ.яз (слабая группа) -
Горбатенко О.Г. пятница
16.30 (471)
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Степанова В.В. пятница
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нем. яз - Крузе И.И. пятница 18.00
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Writing a diploma paper (law)

  Writing a diploma essay (Law)

First you should choose the topic. It can be something you are well aware of but don’t know how to approach or just feeling curious to dig deeper as the subject seems quite attractive. In any case before outlining a general scheme of your essay you need to do preliminary research, which can include some of the functions:
• library familiarization: getting to know where things are and dipping your toes into the whole research pool before diving in head-first
• fascination with a topic
• examination of the available resources - even if you're familiar with the general subject area and the library - to see how feasible delving further into the topic will prove.
It will take time to sort out the material and put together an outline (план работы) of your paper.
An outline is the organizational plan for your paper. You know your starting point: your introduction and the thesis/research question (основной вопрос работы). You know your destination: some sort of summative and thoughtful conclusion. Now it’s time to form a plan of your research which could be structured in the following way:

I. Introduction

Set up the purpose and the tone of the paper. Speak about the novelty of the topic and why you find it vital. Form the thesis statement (основной тезис) that should contain the main point of the paper and suggest a direction that the paper will take in exploring, proving, or disproving that main point.

II. Main body

The main body contains a number of smaller points linked to the topic.
The focus of the paper may change and evolve over the writing period.
Arrange ideas systematically in an orderly, functional way.
As you are composing the body of your paper, make sure that every paragraph you write support or further the argument of the thesis.
Never include unrelated material: always keep the thesis in mind.
Organize your thoughts in logical sub-titles:


This kind of structure is used to fully explore a set of sub-points a topic suggests. Each part develops a specific idea that supports the thesis statement; it also connects that idea to the other ideas presented in the paper. The organizational pattern of your paper (based mainly upon the type of paper you are writing) will help you decide what issues you should deal with and in what order to deal with them.
Arrange paragraphs so that they can develop and unify a set of ideas in many different ways: each paragraph represents a separate step towards a general conclusion about your topic. To that end, each paragraph should develop its idea with as many (or as few) sentences as necessary to make its point clear. You can also contrast ideas and look at the topic from different angles. As a variant you might disprove the thesis statement of your work offering opposing ideas and supporting them with facts and other peoples’ opinions.
In research papers you can’t avoid referring to different opinions and statements. You acknowledge your sources by keying in brief parenthetical citations in text and corresponding this with an alphabetical list of work you have cited at the end of the paper. Quotations can be of two types:
Direct Quotation (прямое цитирование)
Author in text (авторский текст) Zander stresses that the legal reforms of 1999 “were fundamentally flawed, rather than prone to temporary hiccups. They amounted to taking a sledgehammer to crack a nut” [19]*
Author in reference
(ссылка на автора) Recognizing the need of the reforms, professor Zander, felt however, that they “were fundamentally flawed, rather than prone to temporary hiccups.” [19]
Paraphrase or Summary (комментарий)
Author in text
(Подчинение мысли автора
своим целям в работе) Zender, a leading academic, felt that the reforms were fundamentally flawed, rather than prone to temporary hiccups, and was very vociferous in expressing his opposition to the reforms prior to their implementation. He is reported to have said that they amounted to taking a sledgehammer to crack a nut. [19]
Author in reference (Ссылка на автора без прямого цитирования)

The legal reforms of 1999 in England were heavily criticized [19]
* number of the work you are quoting in bibliography

Ш. Conclusion

The paper should be arranged so that your purpose is clear, your thesis logically stated and developed, your final conclusion plainly drawn from the preceding material.


You would gain more points if you could work out a classification, set of recommendations, criticism or full description of the phenomenon under study.

IV. Works Cited (or References) list

Use the following forms for entries in the bibliography or list of works cited (if you have used a library of more than 20 works you refer to).
• Books
• Encyclopedia articles, articles in scientific editions and periodicals
• Unpublished and miscellaneous sources
Write an essay of 10-12 pages. Use only English sources and academic language.

V. Index/appendices/glossary

Your deadlines:

1. Having a pass on Writing a diploma essay –end of September
2. Choosing the topic – mid of October
3. Outline of the research - end of October
4. Draft paper (первый вариант работы) – end of November
5. Revision (окончательный вариант работы) – end of December
6. Exchange your diploma essay with a mate. Study it thoroughly, correct mistakes, suggest better arrangement and wording, outline the weak points, speak on the strong points, suggest constructive critics, estimate the work in class.
7. Oral presentation with PowerPoint (in class) – February - March
8. You must also make a report at the students’ conference as a pass to exam
9. Final exam – end of March – early April
10. Presentation of the diploma paper in English using PowerPoint technology in front of the examination board (May-June)

Revision (редакция реферата) does take time. After letting your draft sit for a few days, look at your work with a new critical eye, critical for what doesn't work and what does.
• Does your title give readers a good idea of what's to come? Is your thesis statement or research question clearly stated?
• Is there enough lead-in in the introduction to establish the importance of and context for the statement/question? Is there too much? Too little? By the end of the introduction, is it clear to the audience what kind of material will follow? If so, are these expectations fulfilled, that is, do you follow through?
• Is it clear where your introduction ends and body begins and where the body ends and the conclusion begins? In other words, are your paragraph indents meaningful?
• At the same time, are there transitions between all sections and paragraphs to create flow and unity?
• Does each body paragraph have a topic sentence? If you took your thesis/question and all your topic sentences, would that correspond to what you want to say in your paper? If not, do you need to revise your thesis/question or re-examine your sub-points?
• Do the topic sentences (1) make a connection back with the thesis/question, (2) establish a link with the previous paragraph's content (perhaps the chronological relationship, any comparisons/contrasts?) and (3) give enough information that the audience could guess where a particular paragraph's development would lead?
• Does the order of paragraphs make sense? (e.g., maybe the transitions seem forced because they aren't in the right order)
• Are your paragraphs too short (say, fewer than 4 sentences) or too long (longer than about 8)? Is there some combining or separating of issues that needs to take place? Or do you simply need to generate more content or delete irrelevant material?
• Are your examples reliable, representative, and convincing? Are there enough of them (or too many) to develop the main idea of the paragraph in the word count you have available?
• Are your sources convincing? Is there enough balance between your own insights and expert opinions?
• Is anything that should be referenced, referenced?
• Are all sources and direct quotations explained or have you left them standing on their own?
• Has anything that goes off topic or is not essential been cut? (TIP: whenever you know you have to cut something but you're finding it hard to do, cut and paste it in a separate file so that you feel it hasn't been obliterated. In a couple of weeks, you'll probably go back and wonder why you were so attached to the passage in the first place!)
• Does the conclusion say something different from your introduction? Does it leave a good lasting impression or is it wishy-washy?
There are 4 basic actions that will occur during the revisions you now hopefully plan to make:
ADD. Insert needed words, sentences, and paragraphs. If your additions require new content, return to the idea-gathering techniques.
CUT. Get rid of whatever goes off the topic or repeats what has already been said.
REPLACE. As needed, substitute new words, sentences, and paragraphs for what you have cut.
MOVE MATERIAL AROUND. Change the sequence of paragraphs if the material is not presented in logical order. Move sentences.
4. Proofreading (корректорская правка) – another week in your schedule
Believe it or not, now that you've hopefully finished major revisions, the hardest part is really over! Your goal at this point is not so much to focus on content but on nitpicky copyediting which is so great for catching those careless mistakes that distract your readers (including markers) from your main ideas.
Here's a checklist for some finishing touches:
• Check out your verb tenses
Read your essay out loud to listen for either awkward or long sentences that could be clarified or broken up to read better.
• Check your punctuation. If you have problems with quotation marks, commas, semicolons, colons, or dashes, visit Paradigm Online Writing Assistant's Basic Punctuation Guide

• Set up footnotes (сноски) or endnotes (материал, вынесенный в конец работы) (index – алфавитная организация терминов со ссылкой на текст), appendices – приложения в виде таблиц, картинок и пр. материала) if you need them, too. A glossary (up to 100 terms) should be placed in this part of your work. Don’t forget to mention it in the outlining so that the reader would remember to have a look and appreciate your efforts.

• Now you can check your spelling both with a computer spell-checker and with your own eyes to catch those words that are spelled right but used in the wrong context (like there vs. their vs. they're). For common problems, visit Purdue's Spelling Handouts . Someone else's eyes are great at this point because you're probably too close to your own writing.
• Work on the presentation of your paper: use a laser-printer, space your lines, maintain 1 inch margins, start numbering pages of actual text (first page is Title page, second page is Outline, third page is the text of your essay) and prepare a title page with an original title somewhere in the centre and your vital student info in the bottom right hand corner. A staple or (better!) a fold will do to put the papers together. Also make sure your font is very readable (Times New Roman is the most common) and in 14 point. Your work has to be 1,5 spaced.
All the stages of writing your diploma essay should be discussed with your adviser within the deadlines.
You should also work out a one page (maximum 2 pages) report on your research to deliver it in front of the examination board and your fellow students at the conference. You should address your professor to check it for you.
Use PowerPoint programme, charts, pictures and other visual arts for better presentation.

Final remark

Words like thesis, organization, paragraph, coherence, and comma splice, don't exist just to make your life miserable. All of these terms define the effects of a piece of writing. That is, a paper with a well-defined thesis lets a reader know where it's going; a well-organized paper is one that enables a reader to get from beginning to end without getting lost.

We wish you luck!